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Quantifying Similarity: Text-Mining Approaches to Evaluate ChatGPT and Google Bard Content in Relation to BioMedical Literature

Jakub KlimczakAhmed Abdeen Hamed
Jan 2024
Background: The emergence of generative AI tools, empowered by Large Language Models (LLMs), has shown powerful capabilities in generating content. To date, the assessment of the usefulness of such content, generated by what is known as prompt engineering, has become an interesting research question. Objectives Using the mean of prompt engineering, we assess the similarity and closeness of such contents to real literature produced by scientists. Methods In this exploratory analysis, (1) we prompt-engineer ChatGPT and Google Bard to generate clinical content to be compared with literature counterparts, (2) we assess the similarities of the contents generated by comparing them with counterparts from biomedical literature. Our approach is to use text-mining approaches to compare documents and associated bigrams and to use network analysis to assess the terms' centrality. Results The experiments demonstrated that ChatGPT outperformed Google Bard in cosine document similarity (38% to 34%), Jaccard document similarity (23% to 19%), TF-IDF bigram similarity (47% to 41%), and term network centrality (degree and closeness). We also found new links that emerged in ChatGPT bigram networks that did not exist in literature bigram networks. Conclusions: The obtained similarity results show that ChatGPT outperformed Google Bard in document similarity, bigrams, and degree and closeness centrality. We also observed that ChatGPT offers linkage to terms that are connected in the literature. Such connections could inspire asking interesting questions and generate new hypotheses.
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