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Red shift of the superconductivity cavity resonance in Josephson junction qubits as a direct signature of TLS population inversion

Alexander L. BurinMoshe SchechterDaniel TennantKeith G. RayYaniv J. Rosen
Feb 2024
Quantum two-level systems (TLSs) limit the performance of superconducting qubits and superconducting and optomechanical resonators breaking down the coherence and absorbing the energy of oscillations. TLS absorption can be suppressed or even switched to the gain regime by inverting TLS populations. Here we theoretically explore the regime where the full inversion of TLS populations is attained at energies below a pump field quantization energy by simultaneously applying the pump field and the time varying bias. This regime is attained changing the bias sufficiently slowly to fully invert TLS populations when their energies cross resonance with the pump field and sufficiently fast to avoid TLS relaxation between two resonance crossing events. This population inversion is accompanied by a significant red shift of cavity resonance due to quantum level repulsion. The red-shift in frequency serves as a signature of the population inversion, as its re-entrant behavior as function of bias sweep rate and of the magnitude of the pump field allows the determination of the TLSs dipole moment and relaxation time. The predicted behavior is qualitatively consistent with the recent experimental observations in Al superconducting resonators.
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