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Spectroscopic observations of progenitor activity 100 days before a Type Ibn supernova

S. J. BrennanJ. SollermanI. Irani ...+29 A. Wold
Feb 2024
Obtaining spectroscopic observations of the progenitors of core-collapse supernovae is often unfeasible due to an inherent lack of knowledge as to which stars will go supernova and when they will explode. In this letter, we present photometric and spectroscopic observations of the progenitor activity of SN 2023fyq in the preceding 150 days before the He-rich progenitor exploded as a Type Ibn supernova. The progenitor of SN 2023fyq shows an exponential rise in flux prior to core-collapse. Complex He I emission line features are observed, with a P-Cygni like profile, as well as an evolving broad base with velocities on the order of 10,000 km/s, possibly due to electron scattering. The luminosity and evolution of SN 2023fyq are consistent with a faint Type Ibn, reaching a peak r-band magnitude of 18.1 mag, although there is some uncertainty in the distance to the host, NGC 4388, located in the Virgo cluster. We present additional evidence of asymmetric He-rich material being present prior to the explosion of SN 2023fyq, as well as after, suggesting this material has survived the ejecta-CSM interaction. Broad [O I] and the Ca II triplet lines are observed at late phases, confirming that SN 2023fyq was a genuine supernova rather than a non-terminal interacting transient. SN 2023fyq provides insight into the final moments of a massive star's life, highlighting that the progenitor is likely highly unstable before core-collapse.
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