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Stacking Group Structure of Fermionic Symmetry-Protected Topological Phases

Xing-Yu RenShang-Qiang NingYang QiQing-Rui WangZheng-Cheng Gu
Feb 2024
In the past decade, there has been a systematic investigation of symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases in interacting fermion systems. Specifically, by utilizing the concept of equivalence classes of finite-depth fermionic symmetric local unitary (FSLU) transformations and the fluctuating decorated symmetry domain wall picture, a large class of fixed-point wave functions have been constructed for fermionic SPT (FSPT) phases. Remarkably, this construction coincides with the Atiyah-Hirzebruch spectral sequence, enabling a complete classification of FSPT phases. However, unlike bosonic SPT phases, the stacking group structure in fermion systems proves to be much more intricate. The construction of fixed-point wave functions does not explicitly provide this information. In this paper, we employ FSLU transformations to investigate the stacking group structure of FSPT phases. Specifically, we demonstrate how to compute stacking FSPT data from the input FSPT data in each layer, considering both unitary and anti-unitary symmetry, up to 2+1 dimensions. As concrete examples, we explicitly compute the stacking group structure for crystalline FSPT phases in all 17 wallpaper groups and the mixture of wallpaper groups with onsite time-reversal symmetry using the fermionic crystalline equivalence principle. Importantly, our approach can be readily extended to higher dimensions, offering a versatile method for exploring the stacking group structure of FSPT phases.
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