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DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2023.3341871

Effect of CLIQ on training of HL-LHC quadrupole magnets

S. Stoynev (1)G. Ambrosio (1)K. Amm (2) ...+7 (3) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)
Feb 2024
The high-luminosity LHC upgrade requires stronger than LHC low-beta quadrupole magnets to reach the luminosity goals of the project. The project is well advanced and HL-LHC quadrupole magnets are currently being commissioned in US Labs (MQXFA magnets) and CERN (MQXFB magnets). Those are the first Nb3Sn magnets to be used in any large particle accelerator. At development stages, many Nb3Sn accelerator sub-scale models showed relatively slow training and MQXFA magnets were projected to have low tens of quenches before reaching operational field. Recently it was shown that dedicated capacitor-based devices can affect Nb3Sn magnet training, and it was suggested that CLIQ, a capacitor-based device intended for quench protection, can do too. The present paper investigates effects on training likely induced by CLIQ, using the base fact that only half the coils in a quadrupole experience upward current modulation at quench because of capacitor discharge. The study encompasses all MQXFA production magnets trained at BNL to date. No other high-statistics data from identical magnets (series) with CLIQ protection exist so far. Implications and opportunities stemming from data analysis are discussed and conclusions drawn.
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