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Engineering Design Knowledge Graphs from Patented Artefact Descriptions for Retrieval-Augmented Generation in the Design Process

L SiddharthJianxi Luo
Feb 2024
Despite significant popularity, Large-language Models (LLMs) require explicit, contextual facts to support domain-specific knowledge-intensive tasks in the design process. The applications built using LLMs should hence adopt Retrieval-Augmented Generation (RAG) to better suit the design process. In this article, we present a data-driven method to identify explicit facts from patent documents that provide standard descriptions of over 8 million artefacts. In our method, we train roBERTa Transformer-based sequence classification models using our dataset of 44,227 sentences and facts. Upon classifying tokens in a sentence as entities or relationships, our method uses another classifier to identify specific relationship tokens for a given pair of entities so that explicit facts of the form head entity :: relationship :: tail entity are identified. In the benchmark approaches for constructing facts, we use linear classifiers and Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) both incorporating BERT Transformer-based token embeddings to predict associations among the entities and relationships. We apply our method to 4,870 fan system related patents and populate a knowledge base of around 3 million facts. Upon retrieving the facts representing generalisable domain knowledge and the knowledge of specific subsystems and issues, we demonstrate how these facts contextualise LLMs for generating text that is more relevant to the design process.
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