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Large Language Models for Time Series: A Survey

Xiyuan ZhangRanak Roy ChowdhuryRajesh K. GuptaJingbo Shang
Feb 2024
Large Language Models (LLMs) have seen significant use in domains such as natural language processing and computer vision. Going beyond text, image and graphics, LLMs present a significant potential for analysis of time series data, benefiting domains such as climate, IoT, healthcare, traffic, audio and finance. This survey paper provides an in-depth exploration and a detailed taxonomy of the various methodologies employed to harness the power of LLMs for time series analysis. We address the inherent challenge of bridging the gap between LLMs' original text data training and the numerical nature of time series data, and explore strategies for transferring and distilling knowledge from LLMs to numerical time series analysis. We detail various methodologies, including (1) direct prompting of LLMs, (2) time series quantization, (3) alignment techniques, (4) utilization of the vision modality as a bridging mechanism, and (5) the combination of LLMs with tools. Additionally, this survey offers a comprehensive overview of the existing multimodal time series and text datasets and delves into the challenges and future opportunities of this emerging field. We maintain an up-to-date Github repository which includes all the papers and datasets discussed in the survey.
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