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The Hot Circum-Galactic Medium in the eROSITA All Sky Survey I. X-ray Surface Brightness Profiles

Yi ZhangJohan ComparatGabriele Ponti ...+13 Mara Salvato
Jan 2024
We apply a stacking technique to gain enough statistics to detect the hot CGM around galaxies. We use the X-ray data from the first four SRG/eROSITA all-sky surveys (eRASS:4). We discuss how the satellite galaxies could bias the stacking and carefully build the central galaxy samples based on the SDSS spectroscopic survey and halo-based group finder algorithm and isolated galaxy sample from the ninth data release of the DESI Legacy survey (LS DR9, photometric). We mask the detected X-ray point sources and carefully model the X-ray emission from the unresolved active galactic nuclei (AGN) and X-ray binaries (XRB) to obtain the X-ray emission from the hot CGM. The X-ray surface brightness profiles are measured for $\log(M_*)>10.0$ or $\log(M_{\rm 200m})>11.5$ central galaxies, and $\log(M_*)>9.5$ isolated galaxies. We detect the X-ray emission around MW-mass ($\log(M_*)=10.5-11.0$) and more massive central galaxies extending up to the virial radius ($R_{\rm vir}$). The signal-to-noise ratio of the extended emission around the MW-mass galaxy is about $8.1\sigma$ within $R_{\rm vir}$. We use the $\beta$ model to describe the X-ray surface brightness profiles of the hot CGM. We obtain a central surface brightness of $S_{\rm X,0}\approx 3.1\times10^{35}\rm erg/s/kpc^2$ and $\beta \approx0.42$ for MW-mass galaxy. We estimate the baryon budget of the hot CGM and obtain a value lower than the $\Lambda CDM$ cosmology predicted. Our results set a firm footing for the presence of a hot CGM around MW-mass and more massive central galaxies. These measurements constitute a new benchmark for galaxy evolution models and possible implementations of feedback processes therein.
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