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The eROSITA Upper Limits: Description and access to the data

D. Tub\'in-ArenasM. KrumpeG. Lamer ...+12 Z. Liu
Jan 2024
The soft X-ray instrument eROSITA on board the Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) observatory has successfully completed four of the eight planned all-sky surveys, detecting almost one million X-ray sources during the first survey (eRASS1). The catalog of this survey will be released as part of the first eROSITA data release (DR1). Based on X-ray aperture photometry, we provide flux upper limits for eRASS1 in several energy bands. We cover galactic longitudes between $180^{\circ}\lesssim l \lesssim 360^{\circ}$ (eROSITA-DE). These data are crucial for studying the X-ray properties of variable and transient objects, as well as non-detected sources in the eROSITA all-sky survey data. We performed aperture photometry on every pixel of the SRG/eROSITA standard pipeline data products for all available sky tiles in the single detection band ($0.2 - 2.3$ keV). Simultaneously, we performed the same analysis in the three-band detection at soft ($0.2-0.6$ keV), medium ($0.6-2.3$ keV), and hard ($2.3-5.0$ keV) energy bands. Based on the combination of products for the individual bands, we are also able to provide aperture photometry products and flux upper limits for the $0.2 - 5.0$ keV energy band. The upper limits were calculated based on a Bayesian approach that utilizes detected counts and background within the circular aperture. The final data products consist of tables with the aperture photometry products (detected counts, background counts, and exposure time), a close-neighbor flag, and the upper flux limit based on an absorbed power-law spectral model ($\Gamma=2.0, \; N_{\rm H}=3\times10^{20}$ cm$^{-2}$). The upper limits are calculated using the one-sided $3\sigma$ confidence interval (CL) of a normal distribution, representing CL = 99.87\%. The aperture photometry products allow for an easy computation of upper limits at any other confidence interval and spectral model. ...
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