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Transitions in magnetic behavior at the substellar boundary

E. MagauddaB. StelzerR. A. OstenJ. S. PinedaSt. RaetzM. McKay
Jan 2024
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摘要原文
We aim at advancing our understanding of magnetic activity and the underlying dynamo mechanism at the end of the main-sequence. To this end, we collected simultaneous X-ray and radio observations for a sample of M7-L0 dwarfs using XMM-Newton jointly with the JVLA and the ATCA. We also included data from the all-sky surveys of eROSITA on board the Russian Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission (SRG) and rotation periods from TESS together with an archival compilation of X-ray and radio data for UCDs from the literature. We limit the sample to objects with rotation period <1d, focusing on the study of a transition in magnetic behavior suggested by a drastic change in the radio detection rate at vsini \approx 38 km/s. We compiled the most up-to-date radio/X-ray luminosity relation for 26 UCDs with rotation periods lower than 1d, finding that rapid rotators lie the furthest away from the G\"udel-Benz relation previously studied for earlier-type stars. Radio bursts are mainly experienced by very fast UCDs, while X-ray flares are seen along the whole range of rotation. We examined the L_{\rm x}/L_{\rm bol} vs P_{\rm rot} relation, finding no evident relation between the X-ray emission and rotation, reinforcing previous speculations on a bimodal dynamo across late-type dwarfs. One radio-detected object has a rotation period consistent with the range of auroral bursting sources; while it displays moderately circularly polarized emission. A radio flare from this object is interpreted as gyrosynchrotron emission, and it displays X-ray and optical flares. We also found a slowly rotating apparent auroral emitter, that is also one of the X-ray brightest radio-detected UCDs. We speculate that this UCD is experiencing a transition of its magnetic behavior since it produces signatures expected from higher mass M dwarfs along with emerging evidence of auroral emission.
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