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Transitions in magnetic behavior at the substellar boundary

E. MagauddaB. StelzerR. A. OstenJ. S. PinedaSt. RaetzM. McKay
Jan 2024
We aim at advancing our understanding of magnetic activity and the underlying dynamo mechanism at the end of the main-sequence. To this end, we collected simultaneous X-ray and radio observations for a sample of M7-L0 dwarfs using XMM-Newton jointly with the JVLA and the ATCA. We also included data from the all-sky surveys of eROSITA on board the Russian Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission (SRG) and rotation periods from TESS together with an archival compilation of X-ray and radio data for UCDs from the literature. We limit the sample to objects with rotation period <1d, focusing on the study of a transition in magnetic behavior suggested by a drastic change in the radio detection rate at vsini \approx 38 km/s. We compiled the most up-to-date radio/X-ray luminosity relation for 26 UCDs with rotation periods lower than 1d, finding that rapid rotators lie the furthest away from the G\"udel-Benz relation previously studied for earlier-type stars. Radio bursts are mainly experienced by very fast UCDs, while X-ray flares are seen along the whole range of rotation. We examined the L_{\rm x}/L_{\rm bol} vs P_{\rm rot} relation, finding no evident relation between the X-ray emission and rotation, reinforcing previous speculations on a bimodal dynamo across late-type dwarfs. One radio-detected object has a rotation period consistent with the range of auroral bursting sources; while it displays moderately circularly polarized emission. A radio flare from this object is interpreted as gyrosynchrotron emission, and it displays X-ray and optical flares. We also found a slowly rotating apparent auroral emitter, that is also one of the X-ray brightest radio-detected UCDs. We speculate that this UCD is experiencing a transition of its magnetic behavior since it produces signatures expected from higher mass M dwarfs along with emerging evidence of auroral emission.
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