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A new understanding of the Gemini-Monoceros X-ray enhancement from discoveries with eROSITA

Jonathan R. KniesManami SasakiWerner BeckerTeng Liu and Gabriele PontiPaul P. Plucinsky
Jan 2024
The Gemini-Monoceros X-ray enhancement is a rich field for studying diffuse X-ray emission and supernova remnants (SNRs). With the launch of eROSITA onboard the SRG platform in 2019, we are now able to fully study these sources. Many of the SNRs in the vicinity are suspected to be very old remnants, which are severely understudied in X-rays due to numerous observational challenges. In addition, identification of new faint large SNRs might help to solve the long-standing discrepancy of observed and expected number of Galactic SNRs. We performed a detailed X-ray spectral analysis of the entire diffuse structure and a detailed background analysis of the vicinity. We also made use of multi-wavelength data to better understand the morphology and to constrain the distances to the different sources. We estimated the plasma properties of the sources and calculated a grid of model SNRs to determine the individual SNR properties. Most of the diffuse plasma of the Monogem Ring SNR is well described by a single non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) component with an average temperature of $kT = 0.14\pm 0.03$ keV. We obtain an age of $\approx 1.2\cdot 10^5$ yr - consistent with PSR B0656+14 - for the Monogem Ring. In the south-east, we found evidence for a hotter second plasma component and a possible new SNR candidate at $\approx 300$ pc, with the new candidate having an age of $\approx 50,000$ yr. We were also able to improve on previous studies on the more distant Monoceros Loop and PKS 0646+06 SNRs. We obtained significantly higher temperatures than previous studies, and for PKS 0646+06 a much lower estimated age of the SNR. We also found a new SNR candidate G190.4+12.5 which most likely is located at $D > 1.5 $ kpc, expanding into a low density medium at a high distance from the Galactic plane, with an estimated age of $40,000-60,000$ yr.
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