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A Unified Three-State Model Framework for Analysis of Treatment Crossover in Survival Trials

Zile ZhaoYe LiXiaodong LuoRay Bai
Jan 2024
We present a unified three-state model (TSM) framework for evaluating treatment effects in clinical trials in the presence of treatment crossover. Researchers have proposed diverse methodologies to estimate the treatment effect that would have hypothetically been observed if treatment crossover had not occurred. However, there is little work on understanding the connections between these different approaches from a statistical point of view. Our proposed TSM framework unifies existing methods, effectively identifying potential biases, model assumptions, and inherent limitations for each method. This can guide researchers in understanding when these methods are appropriate and choosing a suitable approach for their data. The TSM framework also facilitates the creation of new methods to adjust for confounding effects from treatment crossover. To illustrate this capability, we introduce a new imputation method that falls under its scope. Using a piecewise constant prior for the hazard, our proposed method directly estimates the hazard function with increased flexibility. Through simulation experiments, we demonstrate the performance of different approaches for estimating the treatment effects.
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