Purpose: Wood comprises different cell types, such as fibers and vessels, defining its properties. Studying their shape, size, and arrangement in microscopic images is crucial for understanding wood samples. Typically, this involves macerating (soaking) samples in a solution to separate cells, then spreading them on slides for imaging with a microscope that covers a wide area, capturing thousands of cells. However, these cells often cluster and overlap in images, making the segmentation difficult and time-consuming using standard image-processing methods. Results: In this work, we develop an automatic deep learning segmentation approach that utilizes the one-stage YOLOv8 model for fast and accurate fiber and vessel segmentation and characterization in microscopy images. The model can analyze 32640 x 25920 pixels images and demonstrate effective cell detection and segmentation, achieving a mAP_0.5-0.95 of 78 %. To assess the model's robustness, we examined fibers from a genetically modified tree line known for longer fibers. The outcomes were comparable to previous manual measurements. Additionally, we created a user-friendly web application for image analysis and provided the code for use on Google Colab. Conclusion: By leveraging YOLOv8's advances, this work provides a deep learning solution to enable efficient quantification and analysis of wood cells suitable for practical applications.