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One-input linear control systems on the homogeneous spaces of the Heisenberg group -- The singular case

Adriano Da SilvaOkan DumanEy\"up Kizil
Jan 2024
The controllability issue of control-affine systems on smooth manifolds is one of the main problems in the theory, and it is recently known [Jouan P. Equivalence of control systems with linear systems on Lie groups and homogeneous spaces. ESAIM: Control Optim. Calc. Var. 2010, 16, 956-973] that it might be connected to that of a particular class of systems called linear control systems on (a homogeneous manifold of) a Lie group. Note that it may become very complicated to establish the controllability property of systems evolving on homogeneous spaces of Lie groups whose dynamics are induced by those of systems in the Lie group under consideration. In fact, even in low-dimensional certain homogeneous spaces, this is quite a challenging task, and for this reason, we have classified in [Da Silva, A., Kizil, E., Duman, O. Linear Control Systems on Homogeneous Spaces of the Heisenberg Group. J. Dyn. Control Syst. 2023, 29, 2065-2086] as a first goal all linear control systems on the homogeneous spaces of the 3-dimensional Heisenberg group $\mathbb{H}$ through its closed subgroups $L$ and, in particular, the controllability and the control sets have been studied for one of the homogeneous spaces $L\setminus \mathbb{H}$. In this paper, we study the controllability and control sets of the induced linear control systems in the homogeneous spaces left. In particular, we focus on the singularity of the induced drift vector fields that results in many cases and subcases to reveal control sets after quite a technical analysis. We give some nice illustrations to better understand what is going on geometrically.
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