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DOI: 10.5121/ijcis.2023.13401

Quantum-Secure Hybrid Blockchain System for DID-based Verifiable Random Function with NTRU Linkable Ring Signature

Bong Gon KimDennis WongYoon Seok Yang
Jan 2024
In this study, we present a secure smart contract-based Verifiable Random Function (VRF) model, addressing the shortcomings of existing systems. As quantum computing emerges, conventional public key cryptography faces potential vulnerabilities. To enhance our VRF's robustness, we employ post-quantum Ring-LWE encryption for generating pseudo-random sequences. Given the computational intensity of this approach and associated on-chain gas costs, we propose a hybrid architecture of VRF system where on-chain and off-chain can communicate in a scalable and secure way. To ensure the validity and integrity of the off-chain computations (e.g., Ring-LWE encryption), we employ a quantum-secure linkable ring signature scheme on NTRU lattice and also delegated key generation (DKG) with a secure key encapsulation mechanism (KEM). Our decentralized VRF employs multi-party computation (MPC) with blockchain-based decentralized identifiers (DID), ensuring the collective efforts of enhanced randomness and security. We show the security and privacy advantages of our proposed VRF model with the approximated estimation of overall temporal and spatial complexities. We also evaluate our VRF MPC model's entropy and outline its Solidity smart contract integration. This research also provides a method to produce and verify the VRF output's proof, optimal for scenarios necessitating randomness and validation. Lastly, using NIST SP800-22 test suite for randomness, we demonstrate the commendable result with a 97.73% overall pass rate on 11 standard tests and 0.5459 of average p-value for the total 176 tests.
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