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Quantum Circuit Mapping for Universal and Scalable Computing in MZI-based Integrated Photonics

Yong KwonAlessio BaldazziLorenzo PavesiByung-Soo Choi
Jan 2024
Linear optical quantum computing (LOQC) offers a quantum computation paradigm based on well-established and robust technology and flexible environmental conditions following DiVincenzo's criteria. Within this framework, integrated photonics can be utilized to achieve gate-based quantum computing, defining qubits by path-encoding, quantum gates through the use of Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) as fundamental building blocks, and measurements through single-photon detectors. In particular, universal two-qubit gates can be achieved by suitable structures of MZIs together with post-selection or heralding. The most resource-efficient choice is given by the post-selected CZ gate. However, this implementation is characterized by a design which has a non-regular structure and cannot be cascaded. This limits the implementation of large-scale LOQC. Starting from these issues, we suggest an approach to move toward a universal and scalable LOQC on the integrated photonic platform. First of all, choosing the post-selected CZ as universal two-qubit gate, we extend the path-encoded dual-rail qubit to a triplet of waveguides, composed of an auxiliary waveguide and the pair of waveguides corresponding to the qubit basis states. Additionally, we introduce a swap photonic network that maps the regularly-labeled structure of the new path-encoded qubits to the structure needed for the post-selected CZ. We also discuss the optical swap gate that allows the connection of non-nearest neighbor path-encoded qubits. In this way, we can deterministically exchange the locations of the qubits and execute controlled quantum gates between any path-encoded qubits. Next, by truncating the auxiliary waveguides after any post-selected CZ, we find that it is possible to cascade this optical gate when it acts on different pairs that share only one qubit.
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