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Persistent Homology analysis for solar magnetograms

Pablo Santamarina GuerreroYukio KatsukawaShin ToriumiDavid Orozco Su\'arez
Jan 2024
Understanding the magnetic fields of the Sun is essential for unraveling the underlying mechanisms driving solar activity. Integrating topological data analysis techniques into these investigations can provide valuable insights into the intricate structures of magnetic fields, enhancing our comprehension of solar activity and its implications. In this study, we explore what persistent homology can offer in the analysis of solar magnetograms, with the objective of introducing a novel tool that will serve as the foundation for further studies of magnetic structures at the solar surface. By combining various filtration methods of the persistent homology analysis, we conduct an analysis of solar magnetograms that captures the broad magnetic scene, involving a mixture of positive and negative polarities. This analysis is applied to observations of both quiet Sun and active regions, taken with Hinode/SOT and SDO/HMI, respectively. Our primary focus is on analyzing the properties of the spatial structures and features of the magnetic fields identified through these techniques. The results show that persistent diagrams can encode the spatial structural complexity of the magnetic flux of active regions by identifying the isolated, connected, and interacting features. They facilitate the classification of active regions based on their morphology and the detection and quantification of interacting structures of opposing polarities, such as $\delta$-spots. The small-scale events in the quiet Sun, such as magnetic flux cancellation and emergence, are also revealed in persistent diagrams and can be studied by observing the evolution of the plots and tracking the relevant features.
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