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Characterization of Magnetic Labyrinthine Structures through Junctions and Terminals Detection using Template Matching and CNN

Vin\'icius Yu OkuboKotaro ShimizuB. S. ShivaramHae Yong Kim
Jan 2024
In material sciences, characterizing faults in periodic structures is vital for understanding material properties. To characterize magnetic labyrinthine patterns, it is necessary to accurately identify junctions and terminals, often featuring over a thousand closely packed defects per image. This study introduces a new technique called TM-CNN (Template Matching - Convolutional Neural Network) designed to detect a multitude of small objects in images, such as defects in magnetic labyrinthine patterns. TM-CNN was used to identify these structures in 444 experimental images, and the results were explored to deepen the understanding of magnetic materials. It employs a two-stage detection approach combining template matching, used in initial detection, with a convolutional neural network, used to eliminate incorrect identifications. To train a CNN classifier, it is necessary to create a large number of training images. This difficulty prevents the use of CNN in many practical applications. TM-CNN significantly reduces the manual workload for creating training images by automatically making most of the annotations and leaving only a small number of corrections to human reviewers. In testing, TM-CNN achieved an impressive F1 score of 0.988, far outperforming traditional template matching and CNN-based object detection algorithms.
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