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Noise-induced phase transitions in hybrid quantum circuits

Shuo LiuMing-Rui LiShi-Xin ZhangShao-Kai JianHong Yao
Jan 2024
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摘要原文
The presence of quantum noises inherent to real physical systems can strongly impact the physics in quantum hybrid circuits with local random unitaries and mid-circuit measurements. For example, an infinitesimal size-independent noise probability can lead to the disappearance of measurement-induced entanglement phase transition and the emergence of a single area-law phase. In this Letter, we investigate the effects of quantum noises with size-dependent probabilities $q=p/L^{\alpha}$ where $\alpha$ represents the scaling exponent. We have identified a noise-induced entanglement phase transition from a volume law to a power (area) law in the presence (absence) of measurements as $p$ increases when $\alpha=1.0$. With the help of an effective statistical model, we find that this transition is a first-order phase transition and shares the same analytical understanding as the noise-induced coding transition. We also discuss the differences between the effect of size-dependent noise and the boundary noise in the phase transitions. We validate our analytical predictions with extensive numerical results from stabilizer circuit simulations.
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