Active learning of Boltzmann samplers and potential energies with quantum mechanical accuracy

Ana Molina-TabordaPilar CossioOlga Lopez-AcevedoMarylou Gabri\'e

Ana Molina-TabordaPilar CossioOlga Lopez-AcevedoMarylou Gabri\'e

Jan 2024

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摘要原文

Extracting consistent statistics between relevant free-energy minima of a molecular system is essential for physics, chemistry and biology. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can aid in this task but are computationally expensive, especially for systems that require quantum accuracy. To overcome this challenge, we develop an approach combining enhanced sampling with deep generative models and active learning of a machine learning potential (MLP). We introduce an adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo framework that enables the training of one Normalizing Flow (NF) and one MLP per state. We simulate several Markov chains in parallel until they reach convergence, sampling the Boltzmann distribution with an efficient use of energy evaluations. At each iteration, we compute the energy of a subset of the NF-generated configurations using Density Functional Theory (DFT), we predict the remaining configuration's energy with the MLP and actively train the MLP using the DFT-computed energies. Leveraging the trained NF and MLP models, we can compute thermodynamic observables such as free-energy differences or optical spectra. We apply this method to study the isomerization of an ultrasmall silver nanocluster, belonging to a set of systems with diverse applications in the fields of medicine and catalysis.