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cDVGAN: One Flexible Model for Multi-class Gravitational Wave Signal and Glitch Generation

Tom DooneyLyana CurierDaniel TanMelissa LopezChris Van Den BroeckStefano Bromuri
Jan 2024
Simulating realistic time-domain observations of gravitational waves (GWs) and GW detector glitches can help in advancing GW data analysis. Simulated data can be used in downstream tasks by augmenting datasets for signal searches, balancing data sets for machine learning, and validating detection schemes. In this work, we present Conditional Derivative GAN (cDVGAN), a novel conditional model in the Generative Adversarial Network framework for simulating multiple classes of time-domain observations that represent gravitational waves (GWs) and detector glitches. cDVGAN can also generate generalized hybrid samples that span the variation between classes through interpolation in the conditioned class vector. cDVGAN introduces an additional player into the typical 2-player adversarial game of GANs, where an auxiliary discriminator analyzes the first-order derivative time-series. Our results show that this provides synthetic data that better captures the features of the original data. cDVGAN conditions on three classes, two denoised from LIGO blip and tomte glitch events from its 3rd observing run (O3), and the third representing binary black hole (BBH) mergers. Our proposed cDVGAN outperforms 4 different baseline GAN models in replicating the features of the three classes. Specifically, our experiments show that training convolutional neural networks (CNNs) with our cDVGAN-generated data improves the detection of samples embedded in detector noise beyond the synthetic data from other state-of-the-art GAN models. Our best synthetic dataset yields as much as a 4.2% increase in area-under-the-curve (AUC) performance compared to synthetic datasets from baseline GANs. Moreover, training the CNN with hybrid samples from our cDVGAN outperforms CNNs trained only on the standard classes, when identifying real samples embedded in LIGO detector background (4% AUC improvement for cDVGAN).
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