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DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202346366

An ESPRESSO view of HD 189733 system. Broadband transmission spectrum, differential rotation, and system architecture

E. CristoE. Esparza BorgesN. C. Santos ...+24 M. R. Zapatero Osorio
Oct 2023
The development of state-of-the-art spectrographs has ushered in a new era in the detection and characterization of exoplanetary systems. Our objective is to utilize the high-resolution and precision capabilities of the ESPRESSO instrument to detect and measure the broad-band transmission spectrum of HD 189733b's atmosphere. Additionally, we aim to employ an improved Rossiter-McLaughlin model to derive properties related to the velocity fields of the stellar surface and to constrain the orbital architecture. Our results demonstrate a high degree of precision in fitting the observed radial velocities during transit using the improved modeling of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. We tentatively detect the effect of differential rotation with a confidence level of $93.4 \%$ when considering a rotation period within the photometric literature values, and $99.6\%$ for a broader range of rotation periods. For the former, the amplitude of differential rotation ratio suggests an equatorial rotation period of $11.45\pm 0.09$ days and a polar period of $14.9\pm 2$. The addition of differential rotation breaks the latitudinal symmetry, enabling us to measure the true spin-orbit angle $ \psi \approx 13.6 \pm 6.9 ^\circ$ and the stellar inclination axis angle $ i_{\star} \approx 71.87 ^{+6.91^\circ}_{-5.55^\circ}$. Moreover, we determine a sub-solar amplitude of the convective blueshift velocity $V_{CB}$ $\approx$ $-211 ^{+69} _{-61}$ m$\,$s$ ^{-1}$, which falls within the expected range for a K-dwarf host star and is compatible with both runs. Finally, we successfully retrieved the transmission spectrum of HD 189733b from the high-resolution ESPRESSO data. We observe a significant decrease in radius with increasing wavelength, consistent with the phenomenon of super-Rayleigh scattering.
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