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Non-equilibrium quantum domain reconfiguration dynamics in a two-dimensional electronic crystal: experiments and quantum simulations

Jaka VodebMichele DiegoYevhenii Vaskivskyi ...+4 Marko Topic and Dragan Mihailovic
Jan 2024
Relaxation dynamics of complex many-body quantum systems brought out of equilibrium and subsequently trapped into metastable states is a very active field of research from both the theoretical and experimental point of view with implications in a wide array of topics from macroscopic quantum tunnelling and nucleosynthesis to non-equilibrium superconductivity and new energy-efficient memory devices. Understanding the dynamics of such systems is crucial for exploring fundamental aspects of many-body non-equilibrium quantum physics. In this work we investigate quantum domain reconfiguration dynamics in the electronic superlattice of a quantum material where classical dynamics is topologically constrained. The crossover from temperature to quantum fluctuation dominated dynamics in the context of environmental noise is investigated by directly observing charge reconfiguration with time-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy. The process is modelled using a programmable superconducting quantum simulator in which qubit interconnections correspond directly to the microscopic interactions between electrons in the quantum material. Crucially, the dynamics of both the experiment on the quantum material and the simulation is driven by spectrally similar pink noise. We find that the simulations reproduce the emergent time evolution and temperature dependence of the experimentally observed electronic domain dynamics remarkably well. The combined experiment and simulations lead to a better understanding of noise-driven quantum dynamics in open quantum systems. From a practical viewpoint, the results are important for understanding the origin of the retention time in non-volatile memory devices such as those based on 1T-TaS2.
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