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The Sonora Substellar Atmosphere Models. III. Diamondback: Atmospheric Properties, Spectra, and Evolution for Warm Cloudy Substellar Objects

Caroline V. MorleySagnick MukherjeeMark S. Marley ...+6 Natasha Batalha 7
Feb 2024
We present a new grid of cloudy atmosphere and evolution models for substellar objects. These models include the effect of refractory cloud species, including silicate clouds, on the spectra and evolution. We include effective temperatures from 900 to 2400 K and surface gravities from log g=3.5-5.5, appropriate for a broad range of objects with masses between 1 and 84 Jupiter masses. Model pressure-temperature structures are calculated assuming radiative-convective and chemical equilibrium. We consider the effect of both clouds and metallicity on the atmospheric structure, resulting spectra, and thermal evolution of substellar worlds. We parameterize clouds using the Ackerman & Marley (2001) cloud model, including cloud parameter fsed values from 1-8; we include three metallicities (-0.5, 0.0, and +0.5). Refractory clouds and metallicity both alter the evolution of substellar objects, changing the inferred temperature at a given age by up to 100-200 K. We compare to the observed photometry of brown dwarfs, finding broad agreement with the measured photometry. We publish the spectra, evolution, and other data products online with open access.
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