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FM3Q: Factorized Multi-Agent MiniMax Q-Learning for Two-Team Zero-Sum Markov Game

Guangzheng HuYuanheng ZhuHaoran LiDongbin Zhao
Feb 2024
Many real-world applications involve some agents that fall into two teams, with payoffs that are equal within the same team but of opposite sign across the opponent team. The so-called two-team zero-sum Markov games (2t0sMGs) can be resolved with reinforcement learning in recent years. However, existing methods are thus inefficient in light of insufficient consideration of intra-team credit assignment, data utilization and computational intractability. In this paper, we propose the individual-global-minimax (IGMM) principle to ensure the coherence between two-team minimax behaviors and the individual greedy behaviors through Q functions in 2t0sMGs. Based on it, we present a novel multi-agent reinforcement learning framework, Factorized Multi-Agent MiniMax Q-Learning (FM3Q), which can factorize the joint minimax Q function into individual ones and iteratively solve for the IGMM-satisfied minimax Q functions for 2t0sMGs. Moreover, an online learning algorithm with neural networks is proposed to implement FM3Q and obtain the deterministic and decentralized minimax policies for two-team players. A theoretical analysis is provided to prove the convergence of FM3Q. Empirically, we use three environments to evaluate the learning efficiency and final performance of FM3Q and show its superiority on 2t0sMGs.
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