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Resource-efficient and loss-aware photonic graph state preparation using an array of quantum emitters, and application to all-photonic quantum repeaters

Eneet KaurAshlesha PatilSaikat Guha
Feb 2024
Multi-qubit photonic graph states are necessary for quantum communication and computation. Preparing photonic graph states using probabilistic stitching of single photons using linear optics results in a formidable resource requirement due to the need of multiplexing. Quantum emitters present a viable solution to prepare photonic graph states, as they enable controlled production of photons entangled with the emitter qubit, and deterministic two-qubit interactions among emitters. A handful of emitters often suffice to generate useful photonic graph states that would otherwise require millions of single photon sources using the linear-optics method. But, photon loss poses an impediment to this method due to the large depth, i.e., age of the oldest photon, of the graph state, given the typically large number of slow and noisy two-qubit CNOT gates required on emitters. We propose an algorithm that can trade the number of emitters with the graph-state depth, while minimizing the number of emitter CNOTs. We apply our algorithm to generating a repeater graph state (RGS) for all-photonic repeaters. We find that our scheme achieves a far superior rate-vs.-distance performance than using the least number of emitters needed to generate the RGS. Yet, our scheme is able to get the same performance as the linear-optics method of generating the RGS where each emitter is used as a single-photon source, but with orders of magnitude fewer emitters.
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