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Time Series based Ensemble Model Output Statistics for Temperature Forecasts Postprocessing

David JobstAnnette M\"ollerJ\"urgen Gro{\ss}
Feb 2024
Nowadays, weather prediction is based on numerical weather prediction (NWP) models to produce an ensemble of forecasts. Despite of large improvements over the last few decades, they still tend to exhibit systematic bias and dispersion errors. Consequently, these forecasts may be improved by statistical postprocessing. This work proposes an extension of the ensemble model output statistics (EMOS) method in a time series framework. Besides of taking account of seasonality and trend in the location and scale parameter of the predictive distribution, the autoregressive process in the mean forecast errors or the standardized forecast errors is considered. The models can be further extended by allowing generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH). Last but not least, it is outlined how to use these models for arbitrary forecast horizons. To illustrate the performance of the suggested EMOS models in time series fashion, we present a case study for the postprocessing of 2 m surface temperature forecasts using five different lead times and a set of observation stations in Germany. The results indicate that the time series EMOS extensions are able to significantly outperform the benchmark EMOS and autoregressive adjusted EMOS (AR-EMOS) in most of the lead time-station cases. To complement this article, our method is accompanied by an R-package called tsEMOS.
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