Erik AurellLucas HacklPawe{\l} HorodeckiRobert H. JonssonMario Kieburg

Erik AurellLucas HacklPawe{\l} HorodeckiRobert H. JonssonMario Kieburg

Nov 2023

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摘要原文

A black hole evaporates by Hawking radiation. Each mode of that radiation is thermal. If the total state is nevertheless to be pure, modes must be entangled. Estimating the minimum size of this entanglement has been an important outstanding issue. We develop a new theory of constrained random symplectic transformations, based on that the total state is pure, Gaussian and random, and every mode thermal as in Hawking theory. From this theory we compute the distribution of mode-mode correlations, from which we bound mode-mode entanglement. We find that correlations between thinly populated modes (early-time high-frequency modes and/or late modes of any frequency) are strongly suppressed. Such modes are hence very weakly entangled. Highly populated modes (early-time low-frequency modes) can on the other hand be strongly correlated, but a detailed analysis reveals that they are nevertheless also weakly entangled. Our analysis hence establishes that restoring unitarity after a complete evaporation of a black hole does not require strong quantum entanglement between any pair of Hawking modes. Our analysis further gives exact general expressions for the distribution of mode-mode correlations in random, pure, Gaussian states with given marginals, which may have applications beyond black hole physics.