Dynamics of Acoustically Levitated Ice Impacts on Smooth and Textured Surfaces: Effects of Surface Roughness, Elasticity, and Structure
Adam McElligottAndr\'e GuerraAlexandre BrailovskiShashini RathnayakaXiaodan ZhuAlexia DenoncourtAlejandro D. ReyAnne-Marie KietzigPhillip Servio
Adam McElligottAndr\'e GuerraAlexandre Brailovski
Through acoustically levitated ice formation and subsequent release onto a controlled area, this study introduces a third class of ice-countering system beyond de- and anti-icing: ice-impacting. By subjecting stainless steel 316 (SS), epoxy resin-coated (ER), and laser-textured (LT) surfaces with known surface roughness, hardness, and structural characteristics to 40 ice droplet impacts each, the effect on surface properties and their effect on solid-solid interfacial impact dynamics, in turn, was examined using a novel analysis framework based on fundamental conservation laws. For the velocities experienced in this study, the impacts did not affect the surface properties; they were consistent after each impact. Elasticity was the most significant factor in droplet behavior: the ER surface exhibited rebounding for 78% of impacts (important for moving surfaces). Surface roughness also played a role, particularly for droplets with rotational motion, as immobilization occurred for 66% of impacts on the rougher LT surface. However, the nanostructures on that textured surface resulted in droplet redirection perpendicular to the surface directionality (critical for stationary surfaces). In contrast, the other surfaces saw no change or no consistent change in rebound angle. Elasticity also affected momentum retention, where the ER surface had a translational restitution coefficient of 0.32 compared to 0.17 for the two stainless steel surfaces. Surface roughness was the predominant aspect of energy retention: the LT surface had a translational-to-rotational energy transfer coefficient of 0.07 (0.23 for the smoother surfaces), resulting in an overall energy retention coefficient of 0.09 compared to 0.28 for the SS and ER surfaces on average.