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Fuel Saving Effect and Performance of Velocity Control for Modern Combustion-Powered Scooters

Jannis Kre{\ss}Jens RauHektor HebertFernando Perez-Pe\~naKarsten SchmidtArturo Morgado-Est\'evez
Nov 2023
This paper investigates the performance and fuel-saving effect of a velocity control algorithm on modern 50 cc scooters (Euro 5). The European Parliament has adopted major CO$_2$ emission reductions by 2030. But modern combustion- powered scooters are inefficiently restricted and emit unnecessary amounts of CO$_2$. Replacing the original restriction method with the system presented in this paper, the engine's operating point is being improved significantly. Therefore, a Throttle-by-Wire-System senses the rider's throttle command and manipulates the throttle valve. A redundant wheel speed sensor measures the precise vehicle velocity using the magneto-resistive principle. The entire system is managed by a central ECU, executing the actual velocity control, fail-safe functions, power supply and handling inputs/outputs. For velocity control, an adaptive PI-controller has been simulated, virtually tuned and implemented, limiting the max. velocity regulated by legal constraints (45 km/h). In this way, the environmentally harmful restrictors used today can be bypassed. By implementing a human-machine interface, including a virtual dashboard, the system is capable of interfacing with the rider. For evaluation purposes a measurement box has been developed, logging vehicle orientation, system/control variables and engine parameters. A Peugeot Kisbee 50 4T (Euro 5) is serving as test vehicle. Finally, the system has been evaluated regarding performance and fuel efficiency both through simulation and road testing. Fuel savings of 13.6 % in real-world test scenarios were achieved while maintaining vehicle performance.
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