We introduce KnowledgeMath, a novel benchmark designed to evaluate LLMs' capabilities in applying financial knowledge to solve complex math word problems. Compared to prior works, this study features three core advancements. First, KnowledgeMath includes 1,259 problems with a hybrid of textual and tabular content and require college-level knowledge in the finance domain for effective resolution. Second, we provide expert-annotated, detailed solution references in Python program format, ensuring a high-quality benchmark for LLM assessment. Finally, we evaluate a wide spectrum of 14 LLMs with different prompting strategies like Chain-of-Thoughts and Program-of-Thoughts. The current best-performing system (i.e., GPT-4 with Program-of-Thoughts) achieves only 45.4% accuracy, leaving substantial room for improvement. While knowledge-augmented LLMs can improve the performance (e.g., from 23.9% to 32.0% for GPT-3.5), it is still significantly lower the estimated human expert performance of 94%. We believe that KnowledgeMath can facilitate future research on domain-specific knowledge retrieval and augmentation into the math word problem-solving process. We will release the benchmark and code at https://github.com/yale-nlp/KnowledgeMath.