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Ensembles of Quantum Classifiers

Emiliano TolottiEnrico ZardiniEnrico BlanzieriDavide Pastorello
Nov 2023
In the current era, known as Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum (NISQ), encoding large amounts of data in the quantum devices is challenging and the impact of noise significantly affects the quality of the obtained results. A viable approach for the execution of quantum classification algorithms is the introduction of a well-known machine learning paradigm, namely, the ensemble methods. Indeed, the ensembles combine multiple internal classifiers, which are characterized by compact sizes due to the smaller data subsets used for training, to achieve more accurate and robust prediction performance. In this way, it is possible to reduce the qubits requirements with respect to a single larger classifier while achieving comparable or improved performance. In this work, we present an implementation and an extensive empirical evaluation of ensembles of quantum classifiers for binary classification, with the purpose of providing insights into their effectiveness, limitations, and potential for enhancing the performance of basic quantum models. In particular, three classical ensemble methods and three quantum classifiers have been taken into account here. Hence, the scheme that has been implemented (in Python) has a hybrid nature. The results (obtained on real-world datasets) have shown an accuracy advantage for the ensemble techniques with respect to the single quantum classifiers, and also an improvement in robustness. In fact, the ensembles have turned out to be able to mitigate both unsuitable data normalizations and repeated measurement inaccuracies, making quantum classifiers more stable.
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