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CARE: Extracting Experimental Findings From Clinical Literature

Aakanksha NaikBailey KuehlErin BransomDoug DowneyTom Hope
Nov 2023
Extracting fine-grained experimental findings from literature can provide massive utility for scientific applications. Prior work has focused on developing annotation schemas and datasets for limited aspects of this problem, leading to simpler information extraction datasets which do not capture the real-world complexity and nuance required for this task. Focusing on biomedicine, this work presents CARE (Clinical Aggregation-oriented Result Extraction) -- a new IE dataset for the task of extracting clinical findings. We develop a new annotation schema capturing fine-grained findings as n-ary relations between entities and attributes, which includes phenomena challenging for current IE systems such as discontinuous entity spans, nested relations, and variable arity n-ary relations. Using this schema, we collect extensive annotations for 700 abstracts from two sources: clinical trials and case reports. We also benchmark the performance of various state-of-the-art IE systems on our dataset, including extractive models and generative LLMs in fully supervised and limited data settings. Our results demonstrate the difficulty of our dataset -- even SOTA models such as GPT4 struggle, particularly on relation extraction. We release our annotation schema and CARE to encourage further research on extracting and aggregating scientific findings from literature.
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