Evolution Operator Can Always be Separated into the Product of Holonomy and Dynamic Operators

Xiao-Dong YuD. M. Tong

Xiao-Dong YuD. M. Tong

Nov 2023

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摘要原文

The geometric phase is a fundamental quantity characterizing the holonomic feature of quantum systems. It is well known that the evolution operator of a quantum system undergoing a cyclic evolution can be simply written as the product of holonomic and dynamical components for the three special cases concerning the Berry phase, adiabatic non-Abelian geometric phase, and nonadiabatic Abelian geometric phase. However, for the most general case concerning the nonadiabatic non-Abelian geometric phase, how to separate the evolution operator into holonomic and dynamical components is a long-standing open problem. In this work, we solve this open problem. We show that the evolution operator of a quantum system can always be separated into the product of holonomy and dynamic operators. Based on it, we further derive a matrix representation of this separation formula for cyclic evolution, and give a necessary and sufficient condition for a general evolution being purely holonomic. Our finding is not only of theoretical interest itself, but also of vital importance for the application of quantum holonomy. It unifies the representations of all four types of evolution concerning the adiabatic/nonadiabatic Abelian/non-Abelian geometric phase, and provides a general approach to realizing purely holonomic evolution.