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Exploring the Privacy-Energy Consumption Tradeoff for Split Federated Learning

Joohyung LeeMohamed SeifJungchan ChoH. Vincent Poor
Nov 2023
Split Federated Learning (SFL) has recently emerged as a promising distributed learning technology, leveraging the strengths of both federated learning and split learning. It emphasizes the advantages of rapid convergence while addressing privacy concerns. As a result, this innovation has received significant attention from both industry and academia. However, since the model is split at a specific layer, known as a cut layer, into both client-side and server-side models for the SFL, the choice of the cut layer in SFL can have a substantial impact on the energy consumption of clients and their privacy, as it influences the training burden and the output of the client-side models. Moreover, the design challenge of determining the cut layer is highly intricate, primarily due to the inherent heterogeneity in the computing and networking capabilities of clients. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of the SFL process and conduct a thorough analysis of energy consumption and privacy. This analysis takes into account the influence of various system parameters on the cut layer selection strategy. Additionally, we provide an illustrative example of the cut layer selection, aiming to minimize the risk of clients from reconstructing the raw data at the server while sustaining energy consumption within the required energy budget, which involve trade-offs. Finally, we address open challenges in this field including their applications to 6G technology. These directions represent promising avenues for future research and development.
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