We calculate two-body scattering phase shifts on a quantum computer using a leading order short-range effective field theory Hamiltonian. The algorithm combines the variational quantum eigensolver and the quantum subspace expansion. As an example, we consider scattering in the deuteron $^3$S$_1$ partial wave. We calculate scattering phase shifts with a quantum simulator and on real hardware. We also study how noise impacts these calculations and discuss noise mitigation required to extend our work to larger quantum processing units. With current hardware, up to five superconducting qubits can produce acceptable results, and larger calculations will require a significant noise reduction.