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Gravitational-wave constraints on scalar-tensor gravity from a neutron star and black-hole binary GW200115

Hiroki TakedaShinji TsujikawaAtsushi Nishizawa
Nov 2023
In nonminimally coupled theories where a scalar field is coupled to the Ricci scalar, neutron stars (NSs) can have scalar charges through an interaction with matter mediated by gravity. On the other hand, the same theories do not give rise to hairy black hole (BH) solutions. The observations of gravitational waves (GWs) emitted from an inspiralling NS-BH binary system allows a possibility of constraining the NS scalar change. Moreover, the nonminimally coupled scalar-tensor theories generate a breathing scalar mode besides two tensor polarizations. Using the GW200115 data of the coalescence of a BH-NS binary, we place observational constraints on the NS scalar charge as well as the nonminimal coupling strength for a subclass of massless Horndeski theories with a luminal GW propagation. Unlike past related works, we exploit a waveform for a mixture of tensor and scalar polarizations. Taking the breathing mode into account, the scalar charge is more tightly constrained in comparison to the analysis of the tensor GWs alone. In nonminimally coupled theories including Brans-Dicke gravity and spontaneous scalarization scenarios with/without a kinetic screening, we put new bounds on model parameters of each theory.
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