Logical Characterization of Contextual Hidden-Variable Theories based on Quantum Set Theory

Masanao Ozawa (Chubu UniversityNagoya University)

Masanao Ozawa (Chubu UniversityNagoya University)

Nov 2023

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摘要原文

While non-contextual hidden-variable theories are proved to be impossible, contextual ones are possible. In a contextual hidden-variable theory, an observable is called a beable if the hidden-variable assigns its value in a given measurement context specified by a state and a preferred observable. Halvorson and Clifton characterized the algebraic structure of beables as a von Neumann subalgebra, called a beable subalgebra, of the full observable algebra such that the probability distribution of every observable affiliated therewith admits the ignorance interpretation. On the other hand, we have shown that for every von Neumann algebra there is a unique set theoretical universe such that the internal "real numbers" bijectively correspond to the observables affiliated with the given von Neumann algebra. Here, we show that a set theoretical universe is associated with a beable subalgebra if and only if it is ZFC-satisfiable, namely, every theorem of ZFC set theory holds with probability equal to unity. Moreover, we show that there is a unique maximal ZFC-satisfiable subuniverse "implicitly definable", in the sense of Malament and others, by the given measurement context. The set theoretical language for the ZFC-satisfiable universe, characterized by the present work, rigorously reconstructs Bohr's notion of the "classical language" to describe the beables in a given measurement context.