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Unsupervised approaches based on optimal transport and convex analysis for inverse problems in imaging

Marcello CarioniSubhadip MukherjeeHong Ye TanJunqi Tang
Nov 2023
Unsupervised deep learning approaches have recently become one of the crucial research areas in imaging owing to their ability to learn expressive and powerful reconstruction operators even when paired high-quality training data is scarcely available. In this chapter, we review theoretically principled unsupervised learning schemes for solving imaging inverse problems, with a particular focus on methods rooted in optimal transport and convex analysis. We begin by reviewing the optimal transport-based unsupervised approaches such as the cycle-consistency-based models and learned adversarial regularization methods, which have clear probabilistic interpretations. Subsequently, we give an overview of a recent line of works on provably convergent learned optimization algorithms applied to accelerate the solution of imaging inverse problems, alongside their dedicated unsupervised training schemes. We also survey a number of provably convergent plug-and-play algorithms (based on gradient-step deep denoisers), which are among the most important and widely applied unsupervised approaches for imaging problems. At the end of this survey, we provide an overview of a few related unsupervised learning frameworks that complement our focused schemes. Together with a detailed survey, we provide an overview of the key mathematical results that underlie the methods reviewed in the chapter to keep our discussion self-contained.
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