Modelling of the Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure as Cyber Physical Power Systems: A Review on Components, Standards, Vulnerabilities and Attacks
Sagar Babu MitikiriK. Victor Sam Moses BabuDivyanshi DwivediVedantham Lakshmi SrinivasPratyush ChakrabortyPradeep Kumar YemulaMayukha Pal
Sagar Babu MitikiriK. Victor Sam Moses BabuDivyanshi Dwivedi
The increasing number of electric vehicles (EVs) has led to the growing need to establish EV charging infrastructures (EVCIs) with fast charging capabilities to reduce congestion at the EV charging stations (EVCS) and also provide alternative solutions for EV owners without residential charging facilities. The EV charging stations are broadly classified based on i) where the charging equipment is located - on-board and off-board charging stations, and ii) the type of current and power levels - AC and DC charging stations. The DC charging stations are further classified into fast and extreme fast charging stations. This article focuses mainly on several components that model the EVCI as a cyberphysical system (CPS).