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Magic in generalized Rokhsar-Kivelson wavefunctions

Poetri Sonya TarabungaClaudio Castelnovo
Nov 2023
Magic is a property of a quantum state that characterizes its deviation from a stabilizer state, serving as a useful resource for achieving universal quantum computation e.g., within schemes that use Clifford operations. In this work, we study magic, as quantified by the stabilizer Renyi entropy, in a class of models known as generalized Rokhsar-Kivelson systems, i.e., Hamiltonians that allow a stochastic matrix form (SMF) decomposition. The ground state wavefunctions of these systems can be written explicitly throughout their phase diagram, and their properties can be related to associated classical statistical mechanics problems, thereby allowing powerful analytical and numerical approaches that are not usually available in conventional quantum many body settings. As a result, we are able to express the SRE in terms of wave function coefficients that can be understood as a free energy difference of related classical problems. We apply this insight to a range of quantum many body SMF Hamiltonians, which affords us to study numerically the SRE of large high-dimensional systems, and in some cases to obtain analytical results. We observe that the behaviour of the SRE is relatively featureless across quantum phase transitions in these systems, although it is indeed singular (in its first or higher order derivative, depending on the nature of the transition). On the contrary, we find that the maximum of the SRE generically occurs at a cusp away from the quantum critical point, where the derivative suddenly changes sign. Furthermore, we compare the SRE and the logarithm of overlaps with specific stabilizer states, asymptotically realised in the ground state phase diagrams of these systems. We find that they display strikingly similar behaviors, which in turn establish rigorous bounds on the min-relative entropy of magic.
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