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The Cygnus Allscale Survey of Chemistry and Dynamical Environments: CASCADE. II. A detailed kinematic analysis of the DR21 Main outflow

I. M. SkretasA. KarskaF. Wyrowski ...+11 A. Hacar
Sep 2023
Molecular outflows are believed to be a key ingredient in the process of star formation. The molecular outflow associated with DR21 Main in Cygnus-X is one of the most extreme, in mass and size, molecular outflows in the Milky Way. The outflow is suggested to belong to a rare class of explosive outflows which are formed by the disintegration of protostellar systems.We aim to explore the morphology, kinematics,and energetics of the DR21 Main outflow, and compare those properties to confirmed explosive outflows to unravel the underlying driving mechanism behind DR21. Line and continuum emission are studied at a wavelength of 3.6\,mm with IRAM 30 m and NOEMA telescopes as part of the Cygnus Allscale Survey of Chemistry and Dynamical Environments (CASCADE) program. The spectra include ($J= 1-0$) transitions of HCO$^+$, HCN, HNC, N$_2$H$^+$, H$_2$CO, CCH tracing different temperature and density regimes of the outflowing gas at high-velocity resolution ($\sim$ 0.8 km s$^{-1}$). The map encompasses the entire DR21 Main outflow and covers all spatial scales down to a resolution of ~3" ($\sim$ 0.02 pc). Integrated intensity maps of the HCO$^+$ emission reveal a strongly collimated bipolar outflow with significant overlap of the blue- and red-shifted emission. The opening angles of both outflow lobes decrease with velocity, from $\sim80$ to 20$^{\circ}$ for the velocity range from 5 to 45 km s$^{-1}$ relative to the source velocity. No evidence is found for the presence of elongated, "filament-like" structures expected in explosive outflows. N$_2$H$^+$ emission near the western outflow lobe reveals the presence of a dense molecular structure which appears to be interacting with the DR21 Main outflow. The overall morphology as well as the detailed kinematics of the DR21 Main outflow is more consistent with that of a typical bipolar outflow instead of an explosive counterpart.
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