This website requires JavaScript.
DOI: 10.1101/2023.05.22.541724

Temporal genomics help in deciphering neutral and adaptive patterns in the contemporary evolution of kelp populations

L.Reynes L. Fouqueau D. Aurelle S. Mauger C. Destombe M. Valero
The long-term persistence of species in the face of climate change can be evaluated by examining the interplay between selection and genetic drift in the contemporary evolution of populations. In this study, we focused on spatial and temporal genetic variation in four populations of the cold-water kelp Laminaria digitata using thousands of SNPs (ddRAD-seq). These populations were sampled from the center to the south margin in the North Atlantic at two different time points, spanning at least two generations. By conducting genome scans for local adaptation from a single time point, we successfully identified candidate loci that exhibited clinal variation, closely aligned with the latitudinal changes in temperature. This finding suggests that temperature may drive the adaptive response of kelp populations, although other factors, such as the species' demographic history should be considered. Furthermore, we provided compelling evidence of positive selection through the examination of allele frequency changes over time, offering additional insights into the impact of genetic drift. Specifically, we detected candidate loci exhibiting temporal differentiation that surpassed the levels typically attributed to genetic drift at the south margin, confirmed through simulations. This finding was in sharp contrast with the lack of detection of outlier loci based on temporal differentiation in a population from the North Sea, exhibiting low levels of genetic diversity, that further decreased over time. These contrasting evolutionary scenarios among populations can be primarily attributed to the differential prevalence of selection relative to genetic drift. In conclusion, our study highlights the potential of temporal genomics to gain deeper insights into the contemporary evolution of marine foundation species in response to rapid environmental changes.