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DOI: 10.1101/2023.05.22.23290346

Left atrial strain in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and associations with systemic inflammation and cardiac injury

B. M.Jepson M. Beaver J. L. Colquitt ...+7 E. Binka
Background Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) commonly involves cardiac injury with both systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Left atrial strain (LAS) detects subclinical diastolic dysfunction in adults but is infrequently used in children. We evaluated LAS in MIS-C and the associations with systemic inflammation and cardiac injury. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, conventional parameters and LAS (reservoir [LAS-r], conduit [LAS-cd], and contractile [LAS-ct]) obtained from admission echocardiograms of MIS-C patients were compared to healthy controls and between MIS-C patients with and without cardiac injury (BNP >500 pg/ml or troponin-I >0.04 ng/ml). Correlation and logistic regression analyses were performed to assess LAS associations with admission inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers. Reliability testing was performed. Results Median LAS components were reduced in MIS-C patients (n=118) compared to controls (n=20) (LAS-r: 31.8 vs. 43.1%, p<0.001; LAS-cd: -28.8 vs. -34.5%, p=0.006; LAS-ct: -5.2 vs. -9.3%, p<0.001) and reduced in MIS-C patients with cardiac injury (n=59) compared to no injury (n=59) (LAS-r: 29.6 vs. 35.8%, p=0.001; LAS-cd: -26.5 vs. -30.4%, p=0.036; LAS-ct: -4.6 vs. -9.3%, p=0.008). An LAS-ct peak was absent in 65 (55%) MIS-C patients but present in all controls (p<0.001). Procalcitonin had strong correlation with averaged E/e' (r=0.55, p=0.001); ESR had moderate correlation with LAS-ct (r=-0.41, p=0.007); BNP had moderate correlation with LAS-r (r=-0.39, p<0.001) and LAS-ct (r=0.31, p=0.023), and troponin-I had only weak correlations. No strain indices were independently associated with cardiac injury on regression analysis. Intra-rater reliability was good for all LAS components; and inter-rater reliability was good to excellent for LAS-r, and fair for LAS-cd and LAS-ct. Conclusions LAS analysis, particularly the absence of a LAS-ct peak, was reproducible and may be superior to conventional echocardiographic parameters for detecting diastolic dysfunction in MIS-C. No strain parameters on admission were independently associated with cardiac injury.