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DOI: 10.1101/2023.05.22.540987

Shigella generates distinct IAM subpopulations during epithelial cell invasion to promote efficient intracellular niche formation

L.Sanchez M. G. Connor M. A. Hamon C. Valenzuela J. Enninga
The facultative intracellular pathogen Shigella flexneri invades non-phagocytic epithelial gut cells. Through a syringe-like apparatus called type 3 secretion system, it injects effector proteins into the host cell triggering actin rearrangements leading to its uptake within a tight vacuole, termed the bacterial-containing vacuole (BCV). Simultaneously, Shigella induces the formation of large vesicles around the entry site, which we refer to as infection-associated macropinosomes (IAMs). After entry, Shigella ruptures the BCV and escapes into the host cytosol by disassembling the BCV remnants. Previously, IAM formation has been shown to be required for efficient BCV escape, but the molecular events associated with BCV disassembly have remained unclear. To identify host components required for BCV disassembly, we performed a microscopy-based screen to monitor the recruitment of BAR domain-containing proteins, which are a family of host proteins involved in membrane shaping and sensing (e.g. endocytosis and recycling) during Shigella epithelial cell invasion. We identified endosomal recycling BAR protein Sorting Nexin-8 (SNX8) localized to IAMs in a PI(3)P-dependent manner before BCV disassembly. At least two distinct IAM subpopulations around the BCV were found, either being recycled back to cellular compartments such as the plasma membrane or transitioning to become RAB11A positive contact-IAMs involved in promoting BCV rupture. The IAM subpopulation duality was marked by the exclusive recruitment of either SNX8 or RAB11A. Finally, hindering PI(3)P production at the IAMs led to an inhibition of SNX8 recruitment at these compartments and delayed both, the step of BCV rupture time and successive BCV disassembly. Overall, our work sheds light on how Shigella establishes its intracellular niche through the subversion of a specific set of IAMs.