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Nucleosynthesis in neutrino-heated ejecta and neutrino-driven winds of core-collapse supernovae; neutrino-induced nucleosynthesis

Shinya Wanajo
Mar 2023
The innermost ejecta of core-collapse supernovae are considered to be thesources of some iron-group and heavier nuclei. The ejecta are predominantlydriven by neutrino heating, principally due to neutrino capture on freeneutrons and protons. Such neutrino interaction plays a crucial role forsetting neutron richness in the ejecta. Recent hydrodynamics work withsophisticated neutrino transport indicates that the ejecta are only mildlyneutron rich or even proton rich. In such conditions a wide variety oftrans-iron isotopes are synthesized, while the neutron richness is insufficientfor the production of r-process nuclei. In this capter, basic concepts ofnucleosynthesis in neutrino-heated ejecta and neutrino-driven winds ofcore-collapse supernovae are presented along with latest studies.Neutrino-heated ejecta indicate the early ejecta component within the first fewseocnds in which anisotropic convective activities of material above theneutrinosphere become important for nucleosynthesis. Then, neutrino-drivenwinds follow, which are approximately isotropic outflows emerging from thesurface of a proto-neutron star . According to such characteristics, studies ofnucleosynthesis here are based on recent multi-dimentional hydrodynamicssimulations and semi-alalytic wind solutions, respectively. These studiessuggest that trans-iron species up to the atomic mass number of 90, as well assome rare isotopes such as 48Ca and 92Mo, are produced in the neutrino-heatedejecta. Neutrino-driven winds are unlikely sources of r-process nuclei, butrather promising sources of proton-rich isotopes up to the atomic number of110.