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Fluctuation-driven excess noise near superconducting phase transition

Juhun KwakEmil PellettElio J. K\"onigAlex Levchenko
Dec 2022
摘要
We discuss intrinsic mechanisms of nonequilibrium excess noise insuperconducting devices and transition edge sensors. In particular, we presentan overview of fluctuation-driven contributions to the current noise in thevicinity of the superconducting transition. We argue that sufficiently close tothe critical temperature fluctuations of conductivity may become correlatedprovided that the rate of quasiparticle relaxation is slow as compared todynamics of superconducting fluctuations. In this regime, fluctuations ofconductivity adiabatically follow the fluctuations of the electrondistribution. This leads to a substantial enhancement of current noise. Thecorresponding spectral power density of noise has a Lorentzian shape in thefrequency domain while its magnitude scales proportionally to the inelasticrelaxation time. It also sensitively depends on the dephasing andGinzburg-Landau timescales. Further estimates suggest that this mechanismdominates over the conventional temperature fluctuations in the same range ofparameters. To describe these effects microscopically, we use thenonequilibrium Keldysh technique in the semiclassical approximation ofsuperconductivity with Boltzmann-Langevin random forces to account forcorrelations of fluctuations.
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