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DOI: 10.1101/2022.12.26.521940

ESCRT recruitment to mRNA-encoded SARS-CoV-2 spike induces virus-like particles and enhanced antibody responses

M. A.Hoffmann Z. Yang K. E. Huey-Tubman ...+6 P. J. Bjorkman
摘要
Prime-boost regimens for COVID-19 vaccines elicit poor antibody responses against Omicron-based variants and employ frequent boosters to maintain antibody levels. We present a natural infection-mimicking technology that combines features of mRNA- and protein nanoparticle-based vaccines through encoding self-assembling enveloped virus-like particles (eVLPs). eVLP assembly is achieved by inserting an ESCRT- and ALIX-binding region (EABR) into the SARS-CoV-2 spike cytoplasmic tail, which recruits ESCRT proteins to induce eVLP budding from cells. Purified spike-EABR eVLPs presented densely-arrayed spikes and elicited potent antibody responses in mice. Two immunizations with mRNA-LNP encoding spike-EABR elicited potent CD8+ T-cell responses and superior neutralizing antibody responses against original and variant SARS-CoV-2 compared to conventional spike-encoding mRNA-LNP and purified spike-EABR eVLPs, improving neutralizing titers >10-fold against Omicron-based variants for three months post-boost. Thus, EABR technology enhances potency and breadth of vaccine-induced responses through antigen presentation on cell surfaces and eVLPs, enabling longer-lasting protection against SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses.
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