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Chiral state transfer under dephasing

Konghao SunWei Yi
Dec 2022
摘要
Exceptional points emerge in the complex eigenspecra of non-Hermitiansystems, and give rise to rich critical behaviors. An outstanding example isthe chiral state transfer, where states can swap under an adiabatic encirclingaround the exceptional point, but only along one direction. In dissipativequantum systems, such exceptional-point encirclings are often accompanied bydecoherence, whose impact is beyond the description of non-HermitianHamiltonians. In this work, we study in detail the effects of dephasing on theencircling dynamics, adopting the full Lindblad master equation. Introducingexperimentally relevant quantum-jump processes that account for dephasing, weshow that gaps emerge in the eigenspectra landscape of the correspondingLiouvillian superoperator. It follows that the chiral state transfer does nottake place in the adiabatic limit, since the system always adiabaticallyfollows the quasi-steady state of the Liouvillian regardless of the encirclingdirection. Nevertheless, the chirality is restored at intermediate encirclingtimes, where the dynamics is non-adiabatic in both encircling directions,distinct from the typical chiral state transfer in non-Hermitian systems. Whileour results are applicable to several recent experiments, we examine a recentcold-atom experiment in particular, and show that the observed long-timechirality is but limited to the special encircling path therein. Our studyprovides further insight into the chiral state transfer under experimentalconditions, and is helpful for controlling open-system dynamics from theperspective of non-Hermitian physics.
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