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Towards a Multimodal Charging Network: Joint Planning of Charging Stations and Battery Swapping Stations for Electrified Ride-Hailing Fleets

Zhijie LaiSen Li
Dec 2022
This paper considers a multimodal charging network in which charging stationsand battery swapping stations are built in tandem to support the electrifiedride-hailing fleet in a synergistic manner. Our central thesis is predicated onthe observation that charging stations are cost-effective, making them idealfor scaling up electric vehicles in ride-hailing fleets in the beginning, whilebattery swapping stations offer quick turnaround and can be deployed in tandemwith charging stations to improve fleet utilization and reduce operationalcosts for the ride-hailing platform. To fulfill this vision, we consider aride-hailing platform that expands the multimodal charging network with amulti-stage investment budget and operates a ride-hailing fleet to maximize itsprofit. A multi-stage network expansion model is proposed to characterize thecoupled planning and operational decisions, which captures demand elasticity,passenger waiting time, charging and swapping waiting times, as well as theirdependence on fleet status and charging infrastructure. The overall problem isformulated as a nonconvex program. Instead of pursuing the globally optimalsolution, we establish a theoretical upper bound through relaxation,reformulation, and decomposition so that the global optimality of the derivedsolution to the nonconvex problem is verifiable. In the case study forManhattan, we find that the two facilities complement each other and playdifferent roles during the expansion of charging infrastructure: at the earlystage, the platform always prioritizes building charging stations to electrifythe fleet, after which it initiates the deployment of swapping stations toenhance fleet utilization. Compared to the charging-only case, ...